Born in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. Master of Arts, Barrister-at-law, Doctor of Law (Honoris Causa) (University of Philippines), Doctor of Literature (Honoris Causa) (Universities of Bhopal and Kakatiya).
Was Advocate-General, Central Provinces and Berar; Puisne Judge; Chief Justice of Nagpur, Madhya Pradesh High Courts; Puisne Judge, Supreme Court of India; Chief Justice of India.
President of: Indian Law Institute, International Law Association (Indian Branch), Indian Society of International Law, and Indian Red Cross Society. Author of nine books including 'My Own Boswell' (Autobiography).
Recipient of: Order of the British Empire, 1946; Order of Yugoslav Flag with Sash, 1970; Knight of Mark Twain, 1971.
Vice-President of India and ex-officio Chairman, Rajya Sabha, 31-8-1979 to 30-8-1984; Acting President of India, 20-7-1969 to 23-8-1969 and 6-10-1982 to 31-10-1982.